Factores de riesgo asociados a Alergia Alimentaria: una revisión de estudios en niños y adolescentes


  • Ana García Universidad de Cuenca
  • Diana Córdova Universidad de Cuenca
  • Gabriela Zuñiga Universidad de Cuenca


La alergia alimentaria es una reacción adversa causada por mecanismos inmunológicos que afecta al 5% de niños y del 3% - 4% de adultos. En la literatura científica, se han implicado factores de riesgo genéticos, socio-demográficos, pre y post natales, nutricionales y medioambientales con resultados variables e inconsistentes. En este contexto, este artículo realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre posibles factores asociados al desarrollo de alergia alimentaria, para lo cual se han considerado publicaciones con un máximo de 10 años de antigüedad, lo cual contribuye a esclarecer los hallazgos encontrados hasta el momento. De acuerdo a esta revisión, factores como herencia de atopia, enfermedades atópicas, edad, género, edad materna, exposición al cigarrillo y número de hermanos mayores se han considerado de alta asociación para el desarrollo de alergia alimentaria ya que existe una amplia y consistente asociación en varios estudios. Mientras que factores como etnia, estatus socioeconómico, edad gestacional, tipo de parto, peso al nacer, lactancia materna, edad de introducción de alimentos sólidos, consumo de vitamina D en la dieta materna, tipo de leche de fórmula, contacto con animales, asistencia a guarderías y zonas geográficas se han considerado de asociación baja puesto que las investigaciones demuestran ser inconsistentes o aisladas.

Food allergy is an adverse reaction caused by immunological mechanisms that affects most often to 5% of children and 3% - 4% of adults. In the scientific literature have been implicated genetic, socio-demographic, pre and post-natal, nutritional and environmental risk factors reporting variable and inconsistent results. In this context, this article makes a literature review about probable factors associated with the development of food allergy, for which we considered those publications from maximum 10 years ago, which helps to clarify the findings until now. According to this review, factors such as heredity of atopy, atopic diseases, age, gender, maternal age and exposure to cigarette were considered as high association to the development of food allergy because there is a wide and consistent association in several studies. While factors such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gestational age, type of delivery, birth weight, breastfeeding, age of introduction of solid foods, vitamin D intake in maternal diet, type of formula, contact with animals, day care attendance, number of older brothers and geographical areas have been considered as low association since research shows to be inconsistent or isolated.


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